Formulation, Characterization, and Sunscreen Potential Evaluation of Nutmeg Leaf Essential Oil Nanoemulsions (Myristica fragrans Houtt.)
Nutmeg leaf essential oil (Myristica Fragrans Houtt.) is one of the natural ingredients which have antioxidant activity and potential as a sunscreen. The research aims to formulate nutmeg leaf essential oil nanoemulsion, characterize, and determine its potency as a sunscreen. Nutmeg leaf essential oil nanoemulsion was formulated with 1; 3; and 5 mL of oil content with two variations of surfactant. The characterization included organoleptic, pH, viscosity, %T, nanoemulsion type, droplet size, thermodynamic and centrifugation stability tests. Evaluation was conducted using UV-Vis spectrophotometer at a wavelength range of 290-400 nm with ethanol as a blank and non-nano-emulsified as a comparison. The result showed that the nutmeg leaf essential oil nanoemulsion had clear and stable appearance, safe for skin, viscosity values of <200 mPas, %T values of near 100%, nanoemulsions type of o/w, and particles size of <200 nm. The evaluation showed that the sunscreen activities of nutmeg leaf oil nanoemulsion was higher than non-nano-emulsified. The highest sunscreen activity was the formula A nanoemulsion which an oil content of 5 mL and had an SPF value of 1.475; %Te value of 50.571%; and %Tp value of 77.218%. The nanoemulsion sunscreen activity of formula A was categorized as a regular suntan
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