Indonesia’s Cultural Diplomacy on the Conduct of Indonesian Language for Foreigners Programme in Thailand (2014-2019)

  • Inova Collins Program Studi Hubungan Internasional, President University
  • Isyana Adriani Program Studi Hubungan Internasional, President University
  • Muhammad Sigit Andhi Rahman Program Studi Hubungan Internasional, President University

Abstract

Abstract


This article examines the Indonesian language for Foreigners Programme (Bahasa Indonesia bagi Penutur Asing or BIPA) implementation in the internationalisation of the Indonesian language in Thailand. Based on Law No.24 of 2009 Article 44, the Government of Indonesia has a task to develop the role of the Indonesian language at the international stage. This effort has gained momentum recently with the establishment of the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC), where ASEAN citizens including Thais are encouraged to have foreign language skills. Thailand is one of the gateways to Southeast Asia. Many businesses and tourists come to Thailand first and then continue to other Southeast Asian nations.  This condition encourages Thai people to learn foreign languages, including the Indonesian language. This article utilises a qualitative approach method, particularly interview and observation as a data collection method, and uses the concept of cultural diplomacy as the theoretical framework. It examines the content of BIPA books, the classroom learning process, and alumni’s feedback toward the programme. The research findings show the high effectiveness of BIPA programme in Thailand. Moreover, BIPA becomes a means of Indonesia's cultural diplomacy, where the Indonesian language and culture serve as tools in creating Thai people's interest in Indonesia.


Key Words: BIPA, Cultural Diplomacy, Indonesia, Internationalisation of Indonesian Language, Thailand


Abstrak


Makalah ini meneliti pelaksanaan program pengajaran ‘Bahasa Indonesia bagi Penutur Asing’ (BIPA) dalam proses internasionalisasi Bahasa Indonesia di Thailand. Berdasarkan UU No. 24 tanggal 2009 Pasal 44, Pemerintah Indonesia memiliki tugas untuk mengembangkan peran bahasa Indonesia di panggung internasional. Upaya ini telah mendapatkan momentum baru-baru ini dengan ditetapkannya Komunitas Ekonomi ASEAN (AEC), dimana warga negara ASEAN  termasuk warga Thailand didorong untuk memiliki kemampuan berbahasa asing. Thailand adalah salah satu pintu gerbang penting ke Asia Tenggara. Para pebisnis dan wisatawan datang ke Thailand dulu dan kemudian melanjutkan ke negara Asia Tenggara lainnya. Kondisi ini mendorong orang Thailand untuk belajar bahasa asing, termasuk bahasa Indonesia. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode pendekatan kualitatif, terutama wawancara dan observasi sebagai metode pengumpulan data, dan menggunakan konsep diplomasi budaya sebagai kerangka teoritisnya. Makalah ini meneliti konten buku pengajaran BIPA, proses pembelajaran kelas, dan umpan balik alumni terhadap program. Temuan penelitian menunjukkan tingkat efektivitas yang tinggi dalam pelaksanaan program BIPA di Thailand. Selain itu, BIPA menjadi sarana diplomasi budaya Indonesia, di mana bahasa dan budaya Indonesia menjadi perangkat diplomasi  dalam  menciptakan ketertarikan rakyat Thailand  terhadap Indonesia.


Kata Kunci: Internasionalisasi Bahasa Indonesia, BIPA, Diplomasi Budaya, Indonesia, Thailand

References

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Ang, I., Isar, Y. R., & Mar, P. (2015). Cultural diplomacy: Beyond the national interest? International Journal of Cultural Policy, 21(4), 365-381. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10286632.2015.1042474
APP BIPA Thailand. (2018). “Students Learn Indonesian Year 2018/2019 First Semester.” Retrieved from https://appbipathailand16.weebly.com/chart.html.
APP BIPA Thailand. (2020, February 11). “Update Mahasiswa Thailand |APP BIPA Thailand.” Retrieved from https://www.appbipathailand.online/2020/02/update-mahasiswa-thailand.html
APPBIPA. (2018). “Annually Program: Indonesian Speech Contest.” Retrieved from
https://appbipathailand16.weebly.com/history.html
ASEAN Secretariat. (2008). ASEAN economic community blueprint (978-979-3496-77-1).
Atdikbud Bangkok. (2018, September 12). “Indonesian Day di Thammasat University untuk 68 Tahun Hubungan Diplomatik Indonesia–Thailand.” Retrieved from https://atdikbudbangkok.org/berita-atdikbud/2018/09/12/indonesian-day-di-thammasat-university-untuk-68-tahun-hubungan-diplomatik-indonesia-thailand/.
Atdikbud Bangkok. (2019a, September 26). “Indonesian Day 2019: Langkah Penguatan Kerja Sama Pendidikan Indonesia-Thailand.” Retrieved from https://atdikbudbangkok.org/berita-atdikbud/2019/09/26/indonesian-day-2019-langkah-penguatan-kerja-sama-pendidikan-indonesia-thailand/.
Atdikbud Bangkok. (2019b, November 13). “Penguatan Kerja Sama Pendidikan Indonesia-Thailand dalam Acara Kemah Persahabatan dan Pengabdian Masyarakat Mahasiswa Unnes dan Thammasat.” Retrieved from https://atdikbudbangkok.org/berita-atdikbud/2019/11/13/penguatan-kerja-sama-pendidikan-indonesia-thailand-dalam-acara-kemah-persahabatan-dan-pengabdian-masyarakat-mahasiswa-unnes-dan-thammasat/.
Badan Bahasa Kemdikbud. (2019, August 16). “Bahasa Indonesia Satukan Cinta Berbagai Negara.” Retrieved from https://badanbahasa.kemdikbud.go.id/lamanbahasa/berita/2944/bahasa-indonesia-satukan-cinta-berbagai-negara.
Badan Pengembangan dan Pembinaan Bahasa. (2017). Laporan Akuntabilitas Kinerja Instansi Pemerintah Pusat Pengembangan Strategi Dan Diplomasi Kebahasaan Tahun Anggaran 2017. Bogor: PPSDK.
Bappenas. (2018). Demografi Pembangunan. Jakarta: Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan Nasional.
Baskoro, R. M. (2017). Konseptualisasi dalam Gastro Diplomasi: Sebuah Diskusi Kontemporer dalam Hubungan Internasional. Insignia Journal of International Relations, 4(02), 35-48. DOI:10.20884/1.ins.2017.4.02.666.
BIPA Kemdikbud. (2019a). “Duta Bahasa Negara (Bakti BIPA Serba-Serbi Kiprah dan Karya Pemerhati BIPA).” Retrieved from https://bipa.kemdikbud.go.id/dataduta.php.
BIPA Kemdikbud. (2019b). “Peta Lembaga di Thailand |JAGA BIPA (Jaringan Lembaga Penyelenggara Program BIPA).” Retrieved from https://bipa.kemdikbud.go.id/jaga.php?show=viewnegara&dt=173&page=1.
Bipakemdikbud. (2019, November 26). “Pengalaman Mengajarkan Permainan Congkak dan Bekel kepada Pemelajar BIPA di Maejo University, Thailand” [Video File]. Retrieved from https://www.instagram.com/p/B5ULpdsHoum/?igshid=198enw4p9j540.
BIPA Kemdikbud. (2019c). “Belajar BIPA Bahan Pembelajaran BIPA: Unggahan Buku Elektronik.” Retrieved from https://bipa.kemdikbud.go.id/belajar1_det.php?js=Buku%20Elektronik.
Cambridge Press. (2013). Introductory Guide to the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) for English Language Teachers. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambride University Press.
Channel NewsAsia. (2015). Impediments for Thailand to grasp advantages from AEC. Channel NewsAsia Business Insights Thailand 2015, 5.
CNN Indonesia. (2016, August 24). “Jokowi Bahas Pola Pembangunan Kebudayaan Nasional.” Retrieved from https://www.cnnindonesia.com/nasional/20160824081513-20-153426/jokowi-bahas-pola-pembangunan-kebudayaan-nasional.
Creswell, J. W. (2013). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches (3rd ed.). Los Angeles: SAGE Publications, Inc.
Das, k. K. (2018, October). Diplomasi dan Strategi Bahasa dan sastra: Bahasa Indonesia Sebagai Bahasa Pergaulan Internasional, 2-23. Paper presented at Kongres Bahasa Indonesia XI, Jakarta.
Directorate of Heritage and Cultural Diplomacy, Directorate General of Culture. (2018). “Pedoman Diplomasi Budaya.” Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan. Retrieved from https://kebudayaan.kemdikbud.go.id/ditwdb/pedoman-diplomasi-budaya/.
Djelantik, S. (2008). Diplomasi Antara teori & praktik. Yogyakarta: Graha Ilmu.
Effendi, T. D. (2016). Bahasa Indonesia Diplomacy and Other Country Language Diplomacy Experience. Global Journal of Politics and Law Research, 4(3), 21-28. DOI:10.5539/jpl.v10n2p97.
Gienow-Hecht, J. C., & Donfried, M. C. (2010). Searching for a cultural diplomacy. New York and Oxford: Berghahn Books.
Grosse, C. U. (2004). The competitive advantage of foreign languages and cultural knowledge. The Modern Language Journal, 88(3), 351-373. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0026-7902.2004.00234.x.
Handoko, M. P., Fahmi, R. N., Kurniawan, F. Y., Artating, H., & Sinaga, M. S. (2019). Potensi pengembangan Bahasa Indonesia menjadi Bahasa internasional. Jurnal Bahasa Indonesia bagi Penutur Asing (JBIPA), 1(1), 5-6. DOI:10.26499/jbipa.v1i1.1693.
Hennida, C. (2009). Diplomasi publik dalam politik luar negeri. Journal Unair: Masyarakat, Kebudayaan dan Politik, 22(1), 17-23.
Kemdikbud. (2019, July 5). “Upaya Internasionalisasi Bahasa Indonesia, Pemerintah Terus Kirim Tenaga Pengajar BIPA Ke Luar Negeri.” Retrieved from https://www.kemdikbud.go.id/main/blog/2019/07/upaya-internasionalisasi-bahasa-indonesia-pemerintah-terus-kirim-tenaga-pengajar-bipa-ke-luar-neger.
Kyrie, H. (2019, January 28). “Double major, minor, and elective courses.” Retrieved from https://uwaterloo.ca/school-of-accounting-and-finance/blog/post/double-major-minor-and-elective-courses
Maheswara, A. (2019, July 24). “Reaksi Orang Thailand Tentang Indonesia” [Video]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ng5egXRxce0.
Muliastuti, L. (2019). Bahasa Indonesia Bagi Penutur Asing: Acuan Teori dan Pendekatan Pengajaran. Jakarta: Yayasan Pustaka Obor Indonesia.
Mussaif, M. M. (2017). Keanekaragaman Budaya Menjadi basis Pembelajaran BIPA. Nusa: Jurnal Ilmu Bahasa dan Sastra, 12(4), 165-171. DOI:10.14710/nusa.12.4.164-172.
Mustakim. (n.d.). Peranan Unsur Sosial Budaya dalam Pengajaran BIPA. Jakarta: Pusat Bahasa Jakarta.
Nye, J. (2004). Soft power: The means to success in world politics. New York: PublicAffairs.
Prayuda, R., & Sundari, R. (2019). Diplomasi dan Power: Sebuah Kajian Analisis. Journal of Diplomacy and International Studies, 2(1), 81-88. DOI: https://doi.org/10.25299/jdis.2019.vol2(01).4429.
Pusat Bahasa. (2010). “Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 24 Tahun 2009: Bendera, Bahasa, dan Lambang Negara, Serta Lagu Kebangsaan.” Retrieved from http://badanbahasa.kemdikbud.go.id/lamanbahasa/sites/default/files/UU_2009_24.pdf.
Pusat Pengembangan Strategi dan Diplomasi Kebahasaan. (2015). Rencana Strategis 2015-2019. Jakarta: PPSDK.
Republika. (2017, April 5). “Thailand Negara Penerima Kiriman Tenaga Pengajar BIPA Terbanyak 2016 |Republika Online.” Retrieved from https://nasional.republika.co.id/berita/nasional/umum/17/04/05/onxyhx361-thailand-negara-penerima-kiriman-tenaga-pengajar-bipa-terbanyak-2016.
Shoelhi, M. (2011). Diplomasi: Praktik komunikasi internasional. Bandung: Simbiosa Rekatama Media.
Soesilowati, S. (2017). Diplomasi soft power Indonesia melalui Atase Pendidikan Dan Kebudayaan. Jurnal Global & Strategis, 9(2), 293-307. DOI: https://doi.org/10.20473/jgs.9.2.2015.293-308.
Supriyadi, H. (2019a, November 9). “Workshop Cooking Thai and Indonesian Food by Kasetsart and UNNES students” [Video File]. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/hamam.supriyadi/videos/10157693506733147/?d=n.
Supriyadi, H. (2019b, March 27). “The BIPA students at Thammasat University learn to play Angklung Instrumental Music” [Video File]. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/hamam.supriyadi/videos/10157104369293147/?d=n.
Supriyadi, H. [Hamam]. (2019c, November 1). “Social service program to Srinagarindra School – Rayong Province by Indonesian classes at SEAS TU and Featured by Indonesian Embassy for the Thailand Kingdom, UNNES Semarang, and UAD Yogyakarta students.” Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/hamam.supriyadi/posts/10157670450043147/?d=n.
Suyitno, I. (2015, September). Pemahaman Budaya dalam Pembelajaran Bahasa Indonesia Bagi Penutur Asing (BIPA). Paper presented at Prosiding Seminar Internasional Menjadikan Bahasa Indonesia sebagai Bahasa Internasional, Malang, Indonesia.
Tabloid Diplomasi. (2017, August 15). “Bahasa Indonesia Menggeliat Di Thailand.” Retrieved from https://tabloiddiplomasi.org/bahasa-indonesia-menggeliat-di-thailand/
Tay, S., & Tijaja, J. P. (2017). Global Megatrends: Implications for the ASEAN economic community (978-602-6392-67-1). ASEAN Secretariat.
Widianto, E., & Rahmania, S. A. (2018). Economic and political diplomacy in disruption era through Indonesian for speakers of other language (BIPA) teacher assignment overseas. Proceedings of the International Conference on Science and Education and Technology 2018 (ISET 2018), 247, 115-117. DOI:10.2991/iset-18.2018.24
Zahidi, M. S. (2016). KSCC Dan Diplomasi Budaya Korea. Insignia Journal of International Relations, 3(01), 44-59. DOI:10.20884/1.ins.2016.3.01.467

Interview
Luberti, R. (2019, October 29). Personal Communication.
Manuchekate, S. (2019, October 14). Personal Communication.
Rusiandi, A. (2019, October 24). Personal Communication.
Supriyadi, H. (2019, October 12). Personal Communication.
Supriyadi, H. (2020, November 6). Personal Communication.
Published
2020-11-11
How to Cite
COLLINS, Inova; ADRIANI, Isyana; RAHMAN, Muhammad Sigit Andhi. Indonesia’s Cultural Diplomacy on the Conduct of Indonesian Language for Foreigners Programme in Thailand (2014-2019). Insignia: Journal of International Relations, [S.l.], v. 7, n. 2, p. 138-153, nov. 2020. ISSN 2597-9868. Available at: <http://jos.unsoed.ac.id/index.php/insignia/article/view/2752>. Date accessed: 04 oct. 2022. doi: https://doi.org/10.20884/1.ins.2020.7.2.2752.
Section
Articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)

Obs.: This plugin requires at least one statistics/report plugin to be enabled. If your statistics plugins provide more than one metric then please also select a main metric on the admin's site settings page and/or on the journal manager's settings pages.