Molecular Phylogeny of Sunflower Cultivars of Teddy Bear, Skyscraper, Lemon Queen and Common Sunflower Using RAPD Markers

  • Gabriella Ashari Tanudharma Student
  • Nurtjahjo Dwi Sasongko
  • Alice Yuniaty


Helianthus or sunflower is a genus of plant comprising about 70 species. Common sunflower and other members of Helianthae are cultivated in temperate regions and some tropical regions as food crops for humans, cattle, poultry, and as ornamental plants.  The common sunflower is valuable with respect of economic and ornamental point of view. There are many cultivars of sunflower including teddy bear, skyscraper, and lemon queen. Variation among these cultivars has been studied using molecular techniques and the result were used to develop the phylogeny among them. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) is one of molecular techniques that were used for this purpose. The purpose of this study was to contruct the phylogeny of three sunflower cultivars and common sunflower based on RAPD markers. The RAPD primers used in this study were OPA-2, OPA-9, OPA-13, OPB-2, OPB-4, OPB5, OPB-7, and OPB-11. Data analysis based on molecular data showed that genetic relationship among Lemon Queen, Skyscraper, Teddy Bear and Common sunflower based on RAPD markers shows that the cultivars studied are grouped into three main groups, namely: Group I Lemon Queen and Skyscraper, Group II Teddy Bear, and Group III Common sunflower; the closest kinship is shown between Lemon Queen and Skyscraper.


Badouin, H., Gouzy, J., Grassa, C.J., Murat, F., Staton, S.E. Cottret, L. Lelandais-Brière, C. Owens, G.L. Carrère, S. & Mayjonade, B., 2017. The sunflower genome provides insights into oil metabolism, flowering and Asterid evolution. Nature, 546 : 148-152.

Beard, B. & Geng, S., 1982. Interrelationships of morphological and economic characters of sunflower. Crop Sci., 22(1) : 817-822.
Darvishzadeh, R., 2016. Population structure, linkage disequilibrium and association mapping for morphological traits in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Biotechnology and Biotechnological Equipment, 30(2) : 236-246.

Ellur, V., Goud, I. & Prabakaran, J., 2015. Morphological and molecular characterization of interspecific cross between cultivated Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. with wild annual diploid H. argophyllus.). Electronic Journal of Plant Breeding, 7(2) : 377-389.

Griffin, H. & Annete, M., 1994. PCR technonogy: current innovations. 1st ed. America: CRC Press.
Hockett, E. & Knowles, P., 2018. Inheritance of branching in sunflowers, Helianthus annuus L. Crop Sci., 10 : 432-436.

Jannatdoust, M., Darvishzadeh, R., Ziaeifard, R., Ebrahimi, M.A., Maleki, H.H., Gholinezhad, E. & Hatamnia, A.A., 2016. Analysis of genetic diversity and population structure of confectionery sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) native to Iran. J. Crop Sci. Biotechnol., 19(37) : 11-17.

Mandel, J.R., McAssey, E.V., Nambeesan, S., Garcia-Navarro, E. & Burke, J.M., 2014. Molecular evolution of candidate genes for crop-related traits in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Molecular, 9(1) : 21-30.

Masvodza, D., 2015. Genetic Diversity Analysis of Local and Foreign Sunflower Germplasm (Helianthus annus) for the National Breeding Program : Zimbabwe. Journal of Cereals and Oil Seeds, 6(1) : 1-7.

Nascimento, A.M.P., Reis, S.N., Nery, F.C., Curvelo, I.C.S., Taques, T.C. & Almeida, E.F.A., 2016. Influence of color shading nets on ornamental sunflower development. Ornam. Hortic., 22(1) :101-106.

Premnath, A., Narayana, M., Ramakrishnan, C., Kuppusamy, S. & Chockalingam, V. 2016. Mapping quantitative trait loci controlling oil content, oleic acid and linoleic acid content in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Mol. Breed., 36 :106-112.

Smith, B., 2014. The domestication of Helianthus annuus L. (sunflower). Veg. Hist. Archaeobot., 23, pp. 57-74.
Sudrik, B.P., Ghodke, M.K., Patil, V.S., Chavan, S.K., & Kesale, N.B., 2014. Evaluation and characterisation of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) germplasm. J Crop Weed, 10(1) : 73-76.

Suresha, P., 2017. Original Research Article Genetic Diversity Analysis in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) parental Lines Using SSR and RAPD Markers.. Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci, 6, pp. 2069-2076.
Tomlekova, N., Kozgar, M. & Wani, M., 2014. Mutation breeding for changed oil quality in sunflower. In Mutagenesis: Exploring Genetic Diversity of Crops. 1 ed. Wageningen, The Netherlands: Wageningen Academic Publishers.
Vear, F., 2016. Changes in sunflower breeding over the last fifty years. OCL, 23, pp. 20-25.
How to Cite
TANUDHARMA, Gabriella Ashari; SASONGKO, Nurtjahjo Dwi; YUNIATY, Alice. Molecular Phylogeny of Sunflower Cultivars of Teddy Bear, Skyscraper, Lemon Queen and Common Sunflower Using RAPD Markers. BioEksakta : Jurnal Ilmiah Biologi Unsoed, [S.l.], v. 2, n. 1, p. 1-6, apr. 2020. ISSN 2714-8564. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 20 apr. 2024. doi: