• Widad Nurul Nadiyah Universitas Jenderal Soedirman
  • Mustofa Mustofa
  • Wahyu Djatmiko
  • Rizak Tiara Yusan


Testosterone is a steroid hormone produced by Leydig cells in testis. Testosterone levels can be measured through a saliva sampel. Testosterone have effect in the cardiovascular system. Testosterone can affect cardiac contractility and has a cardioprotective role in maintaining the autonomic balance of the heart. Cardiac autonomic activity can be assessed by Heart Rate Varibility (HRV). This study aims to determine the effect of salivary testosterone levels on HRV in FK Unsoed students. This study was an analytic observational study with a cross sectional approach. The number of subjects in this study were 31 students who were taken by consecutive sampling, with inclusion criteria, namely male gender, age 17-25 years, agreed to the informed consent, BMI 18,5-24,9 kg/m2, body temperature 36,5-37,5 ℃, and low to moderate level of physical activity. Testosterone levels were measured using the Salimetrics ELISA method. HRV were measured using a POLAR M400 heart rate monitor and the Welltory application with the result of HRV parameters in the form of SDNN. The data normality test used the Saphiro-Wilk test. Bivariate analysis used Pearson’s correlative parametric test. The subjects of the study had a low mean testosterone saliva levels, namely 12,38±3,70 pg/mL and a low mean SDNN of 56,74±19,70 ms. The results of the Pearson correlation test of testosterone with SDNN shows the value of r = 0,147 and the value of p = 0,429, so it can be concluded that there is no correlation between testosterone saliva levels and HRV in SDNN parameters.


Alvi, S. N., Hammami, M. M. 2020. An Improved Method for Measurement of Testosterone in Human Plasma and Saliva by Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry. Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology and Research. 11: 64-68
Azarbayjani, M. A., Fatolahi, H., Rasaee, M. A., Peer, M., Babaei, R. 2011.The Effect of Exercise Mode and Intensity of Sub-Maximal Physical Activities on Salivary Testosterone to Cortisol Ratio and α-amylase in Young Active Males. International Journal Exercise Science .4: 283-293
Benichou, T., Pereira, B., Mermillod, M., Tauveron, I., Pfabigan, D., Maqdasy, S., Dutheil, F. 2018. Heart Rate Variability in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Plos One. 13(4): 1-19
Bloomer, R. J. 2015. Considerations in the Measurement of Testosterone in Saliva and Serum Using ELISA Procedures. British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research. 5: 116-122
Bourdillon, N., Jeanneret, F., Nilchian, M., Albertoni, P., Ha, P., Millet, G. P. 2021. Sleep Deprivation Deteriorates Heart Rate Variability and Photoplethysmography. Frontiers in Neuroscience. 15(1): 1-12
Choi, J., Cha, W., Park, M. 2020. Declining Trends of Heart Rate Variability According to Aging in Health Asian Adults. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience. 12: 1-9
Dandona, P., Rosenberg, M. T. 2010. A Practical Guide to Male Hypogonadism in The Primary Care Setting. The International Journal of Clinical Practice. 64(6): 682-696
De Luccia, T. P. B. 2016. Use of the Testosterone/Cortisol Ratio Variable in Sports. The Open Sports Sciences Journal. 9(1): 104-113
Dharmika, I. A. G. W., Negara, M. O., Kurniawan, Y. 2018. Hubungan Obesitas Sentral dengan Testosterone Deficiency Syndrome (TDS) pada Laki-Laki Dewasa di Denpasar Tahun 2017. Bali Anatomy Journal. 1: 35-38
Doğru, M. T., Başar, M. M., Yuvanç, E. 2010. The Relationship Between Serum Sex Steroid Levels and Heart Rate Variability Parameters in Males and Effect of Age. Turk Kardiyol Dern Ars. 38: 459-46
Farah, B. Q., Prado, W. L. D., Tenorio, T. R. D. S., Ritti-Dias, R. M. 2013. Heart Rate Variability and Its Relationship with Central and General Obesity in Obese Normotensive Adolescents. Einstein. 11: 285-290
Fransesco, B., Grazia, B. M., Emanuele, G., Valentina, F., Sara, C., Chiara, F., Riccardo, M., Fransesco, F. 2012. Linear and Nonlinear Heart Rate Variability Indexes in Clinical Practice. Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine. 2012: 1-5
Kim, H. G., Cheon, E. J., Bai, D. S., Lee, Y. H., Koo, B. H. 2018. Stress and Heart Rate Variability: A Meta Analysis and Review of the Literature. Psychiatry Investigation. 15: 235-245
MacDonald, E,.A., Rose, R. A., Quinn, T. A. 2020. Neurohumoral Control of Sinoatrial Node Activity and Heart Rate: Insight from Experimental Models and Findings from Humans. Frontiers in Physiology. 11: 1-26
May, R., McBerty, V., Zaky, A., Gianotti, M. 2017. Vigorous Physical Activity Perdicts Higher Heart Rate Variability among Younger Adults. Journal of Physiological Anthropology. 36(24): 1-5
Muhadi. 2015. Kemampuan Heart Rate Variability Metode Photoolethysografi sebagai Prediktor Major Adverse Cardiac Events pada Pasien Sindrom Koroner Akut Selama Perawatan di ICCU Rumah Sakit Ciptomangunkusumo. Tesis. Fakultas Kedokteran. Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta. 19 hal. (Tidak dipublikasikan)
Mustofa, Novara, T., Sinensis, R. A., Candrawati, S. 2020. Korelasi antara Lingkar Pinggang dan Kadar Testosteron Total Darah: Studi pada Mahasiswa Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Jenderal Soedirman. Journal LPPM Universitas Jenderal Soedirman. 10(1): 67-72
Paleva, R. 2019. Mekanisme Resistensi Insulin Terkait Obesitas. Jurnal Ilmiah Kesehatan Sandi Husada. 10(2): 354-358
Peter, I., Kelley-Hedgepeth, A., Fox, C. S., Cupples, L. A., Huggins, G. S., Housman, D. E., Karas, R. H., Mendelson, M. E., et al. 2008. Variation in Estrogen-Related Genes Associated with Cardiovascular Phenotypes and Circulating Estradiol. Testosterone, and Hehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate Levels. Journal Clinical Endocrinology Metabolism. 93(7): 2779-2785
Poliwczak, A. R., Tylińska, M., Broncel, M. 2013. Effect of Short-Term Testosterone Replacement Therapy on Heart Rate Variability in Men with Hypoandrogen-Metabolic Syndrome. Polish Archives of Internal Medicine. 123: 467-472
Pongkan, W., Chattipakorn, S. C., Chattipakorn, N. 2015. Chronic Testosterone Replacement Exerts ardioprotection Against Cardiac Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Attenuating Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Testosterone-Deprived Rats. Plos One. 10:1-10
Prastyo, D. B., Deliana, M., Lubis, M. S., Arto, K. S. 2018. Pengaruh Stres Psikologis terhadap Kadar Testosteron Saliva Anak Masa Pubertas. Cermin Dunia Kedokteran. 45:266-270
Rifai, Purwanti, R., Firranda, F. 2020. Pengaruh Frekuensi Latihan Kebugaran Jasmani dengan Denyut Nadi di Desa Sentul Tembelang Jombang. Nursing Sciences Journal. 4(1): 1-7
Sasube, N., Rampengan, S. H. 2016. Disfungsi Ereksi pada Penyakit Kardiovaskular. Jurnal Biomedik. 8: 8-16
Segar, J.L., Badell, K. A., Smith, O. J. 2001. Glucocorticoid Modulation of Cardiovascular and Autonomic Function in Preterm Lambs: Role of ANG II. American Journal Physiology Regulatory Integrative Comparative Physiology. 280: 646-654
Sherwood, L. 2012. Fisiologi Manusia: Dari Sel ke Sistem. Terjemahan oleh Brahm U. Pendit. 2014. EGC, Jakarta
Stauss, H. M. 2003. Heart Rate Variability. American Journal Physiology Regulatory Integrative Comparative Physiology. 285: 927-931
Ter-Markosyan, A.S., Harutyunyan, K.R., Abrahamyan, H.T., Melkumyan, K. V., Adamyan, S.G., Sargsyan, R.S., Khudaverdyan, D.N., 2018. The influence of parathyroid and sex hormones on the pacemaker and contractile activity of the frog isolated heart. New Armen Medicine Journal. 12: 55–63.
Ulinnuha, R., Udiyono, A., Adi, M. S., Wuryanto, M. A. 2018. Gambaran Kejadian Obesitas, Asupan Gizi dan Aktivitas Fisik berdasarkan Status Andropause pada Pria Usia 30-50 Tahun (Studi di Kecamatan Tembalang Kota Semarang). Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat. 6(1): 287-297
Wardana, I. N. G., Widianti, I. G. A., Wirata, G. 2018. Testosterone Increases Corpus Cavernous Smooth Muscle Cells in Oxidative Stress-Induced Rodents (Sprague-Dawley). Bali Medical Journal. 7: 313-322
Wittert, G. 2014. The Relationship between Sleep Disorders and Testosterone in Men
Wranicz, J. K., Rosiak, M., Cygankiewicz, I. 2004. Sex Steroids and Heart Rate Variability in Patients After Myocardial Infraction. Annals Noninvasive Electrocardiolgy. 9: 156-161
Yi, S. H., Lee, K., Shin, D., Kim, J. S., Kim, H. 2013. Differential Association of Adiposity Measures with Heart Rate Variability Measures in Koreans. Yonsei Medical Journal. 54: 55-61
Yoo, H. H., Yune, S. J., Im, S. J., Kam, B. S., Lee, S. Y. 2020. Heart Rate Variability-Measured Stress and Academic Achievement in Medical Students. Medical Principles and Practice. 30: 193-200
How to Cite
NADIYAH, Widad Nurul et al. THE EFFECT OF SALIVARY TESTOSTERONE LEVELS ON HEART RATE VARIBILITY ON STUDENTS OF MEDICAL FACULTY OF JENDRAL SOEDIRMAN UNIVERSITY. Mandala Of Health, [S.l.], v. 15, n. 1, p. 75-89, july 2022. ISSN 2615-6954. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 06 dec. 2022. doi: