PENGARUH EKSTRAK THYME (Thymus vulgaris) TERHADAP IL-6 DAN HITUNG KUMAN PADA HEPAR MENCIT Balb-c YANG DIINFEKSI METHICILLIN RESISTANT Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

EFFECT OF Thymus vulgaris EXTRACT ON LEVEL IL-6 AND BACTERIAL COUNT IN LIVER IN Balb-c MICE INFECTED BY METHICILLIN RESISTANT Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

  • Galuh Yulieta Nitihapsari Departemen Mikrobiologi, Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Jenderal Soedirman.
  • Lisayani Lisayani RS Pantiwilasa Dr. Cipto Semarang.
  • Helmia Farida Departemen Mikrobiologi, Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Diponegoro
  • Muchlis Achsan Udji Sofro Departemen Ilmu Penyakit Dalam RS Dr. Kariadi Semarang-Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Diponegoro

Abstract

Meningkatnya fenomena resistensi bakteri, yaitu Metisilin-Resisten Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), mendorong pentingnya penggalian bahan alam yang memiliki efek antibakteri atau yang memodulasi respon imun. Thymus vulgaris (TV) atau herba timi diketahui memiliki efek antimikroba dan immunomodulator, sehingga diharapkan dapat mengatasi infeksi MRSA melalui peningkatan sitokin IL-6. Efek ekstrak Thymus vulgaris terhadap IL-6 dan hitung kuman pada hepar mencit balb-c yang diinfeksi MRSA diuji pada penelitian ini. Desain penelitian adalah post test only control group design. Populasi studi menggunakan 30 ekor mencit balb-c jantan yang diinfeksi MRSA dan dibagi secara acak dalam enam kelompok. Kelompok penelitian dibagi menjadi enam, yaitu kelompok K1 (mencit diinfeksi MRSA tanpa diterapi), P1 (mencit diterapi ekstrak Thymus vulgaris, 7 hari kemudian diinfeksi MRSA), K2 (mencit diinfeksi dan diterapi vankomisin), P2 (mencit diinfeksi dan diterapi ekstrak TV + vankomisin), K3 (mencit diinfeksi dan diterapi amoksisilin), dan P3 (mencit diinfeksi dan diterapi ekstrak TV + amoksisilin). IL-6 diukur dengan ELISA, hitung kuman dinilai dengan kultur mikrobiologi. Data dianalisis dan diolah menggunakan uji hipotesis dengan uji t-test independent program SPSS 22.0. Hasilnya ditemukan kadar IL-6 yang tidak bermakna antara kelompok K1-P1 (p>0,05), K2-P2 (p>0,05), dan K3-P3 (p>0,05). Penurunan hitung kuman bermakna pada kelompok K1-P1 (p<0,05), tidak bermakna pada K2-P2 (p>0,05) dan K3-P3 (p>0,05). Kadar IL-6 dengan penurunan hitung kuman MRSA di hepar memiliki korelasi positif yang sangat lemah (r=0,086). Ekstrak Thymus vulgaris terbukti efektif dalam menurunkan hitung kuman MRSA pada kelompok yang tidak mendapatkan antibiotik tetapi tidak terbukti meningkatkan kadar IL-6.


 


 


 


The increasing phenomenon of bacterial resistance, namely Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), encourages the importance of extracting natural substances that have anti-bacterial effects or which modulate immune responses. Thymus vulgaris (TV) or herbal thyme is known to have antimicrobial and immunomodulatory effects, so it is expected to overcome MRSA infection through increased IL-6 cytokines. The effect of Thymus vulgaris extract on IL-6, and bacterial counts on the liver of balb-c mice infected by MRSA tested in this study. The study design was Post-test only control group design. The population of the study was used 30 male balb-c mice infected with MRSA and randomly divided into six groups. The study group divided into 6 groups; K1 group (mice infected by MRSA without being treated), P1 (mice treated with Thymus vulgaris extract 7 days later infected with MRSA), K2 (mice infected and treated with vancomycin), P2 (mice infected and treated with TV + vancomycin extract), K3 (mice infected and treated with amoxicillin), and P3 (mice infected and treated with TV + amoxicillin extract). IL-6 was measured by ELISA, the bacterial count was assessed by microbiological culture. Data were analyzed and processed using hypothesis testing with an independent t-test program SPSS 22.0. The results showed that IL-6 levels were not significant between groups K1- P1 (p > 0.05), K2-P2 (p >0.05), and K3-P3 (p>0.05). The decrease in bacterial count was significant in the K1-P1 group (p< 0.05), not significant in K2-P2 (p>0.05) and K3-P3 (p>0.05). The level of IL-6 with a decrease in MRSA count in the liver has a very weak positive correlation (r = 0.086). Thymus vulgaris extract was proven to be effective in reducing MRSA counts in groups that did not get antibiotics but were not proven to increase IL-6 levels

References

Abbas, A.K., Lichtman, A.H., Pillai, S. 2016. Basic Immunology : Functions and Disorders of the
Immune System. 5 ed. W.B Saunders Company. Philadelphia.

Abousouh, S., Widjajanto, E., Sujuti, H. 2017. Effect of Thymus vulgaris extract on level of serum
, Il12 and bacterial colonies in liver in mice infected by Salmonella typhimurium. International Journal of ChemTech Research 10(9): 881-86.

Arshad, N., Mehreen, A., Liaqat, I., Arshad, M., Afrasiab, H. 2017. In vivo screening and
evaluation of four herbs against MRSA infections. BMC Complementary and Alternative
Medicine 17: 1-7.

Braga, L.C., Leite, A.A., Xavier, K.G., Takahashi, J.A., Bemquerer, M.P., Chartone-Souza, E., et
al. 2005. Synergic interaction between pomegranate extract and antibiotics against
Staphylococcus aureus. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 51(7): 541-7.

Chen, C.J., Huang, Y.C. 2014. New epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus infection in Asia.
(Themed Section: New epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus infections.). Clinical
Microbiology and Infection 20(7): 605-23.

Coutinho, H.D., Costa, J.G., Falcao-Silva, V.S., Siqueira-Junior, J.P., Lima, E.O. 2010. Effect of
Momordica charantia L. in the resistance to aminoglycosides in methicilin-resistant
Staphylococcus aureus. Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases
33(6): 467-71.

Dwiyanti, R.D., Muhlisin, A., Muntaha, A. 2015. MRSA Dan VRSA pada paramedis RSUD Ratu
Zalecha Martapura. Medical Laboratory Technology Journal 1(1):27-33.

Gulec, A.K, Kucukgul, A., Danabas. D., Ural, M., Seker, E., Arslan, A., et al. 2013. Therapeutic
effects of thyme (thymus vulgaris linneaus) and fennel (foeniculum vulgare miller)
essential oils in infected rainbrow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss (walbaum). Digest Journal
of Nanomaterials and Biostructures 8(3): 1069-78.

Hariyani, Widaryanto, E., Herlina, E. 2015. Pengaruh umur panen terhadap rendemen dan kualitas
minyak atsiri tanaman Nilam (Pogostemon cablin Benth.). Jurnal Produksi Tanaman.
Universitas Brawijaya 3(3): 205 – 11.

Kumar, R., Yadav, B.R., Singh, R.S. 2011. Antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity factors in
Staphylococcus aureus isolated from mastitic Sahiwal cattle. Journal of Biosciences
36(1): 175-88.

Löffler, B., Hussain, M., Grundmeier, M., Brück, M., Holzinger, D., Varga, G., et al. 2010.
Staphylococcus aureus panton-valentine leukocidin is a very potent cytotoxic factor for
human neutrophils. PLoS Pathogens 6(1): 1-12.

Luthfita, A. 2015. Pengaruh pemberian minyak Nigella sativa dan kombinasinya dengan
seftriakson terhadap jumlah kuman MRSA pada kultur hati mencit balb-c. Semarang :
Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Diponegoro.

Magi, G., Marini, E., Facinelli, B. 2015. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils and carvacrol, and
synergy of carvacrol and erythromycin, against clinical, erythromycin-resistant Group A
Streptococci. Frontiers in microbiology 6: 165.

Mufidah, Z., Rifa'i, M., Rahayu, S. 2013. Aktivitas Imunomodulator ekstrak buah Mengkudu pada
mencit yang diinfeksi Staphylococcus aureus. Jurnal Veteriner 14(4): 501-10.

Ocaña, A., Reglero, G. 2012. Effects of Thyme extract oils (from Thymus vulgaris, Thymus zygis,
and Thymus hyemalis) on cytokine production and gene expression of oxldl-stimulated
thp-1-macrophages. Journal of Obesity 2012:1-11.

Oluwatuyi, M., Kaatz, G.W., Gibbons, S. 2004. Antibacterial and resistance modifying activity of
Rosmarinus officinalis. Phytochemistry 65(24): 3249-54.

Sienkiewicz, M., Lysakowska. M., Ciecwierz, J., Denys, P., Kowalczyk, E. 2011. "Antibacterial
activity of thyme and lavender essential oils. Med Chem 7(6):674-689.

Yap, P.S., Yiap, B.C., Ping, H.C., Lim, S.H. 2014. Essential oils, a new horizon in combating
bacterial antibiotic resistance. The Open Microbiology Journal 8: 6-14.

Yuwono. 2009. Staphylococcus aureus dan Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).
Departemen Mikrobiologi FK Unsri. Palembang
Published
2019-12-30
How to Cite
NITIHAPSARI, Galuh Yulieta et al. PENGARUH EKSTRAK THYME (Thymus vulgaris) TERHADAP IL-6 DAN HITUNG KUMAN PADA HEPAR MENCIT Balb-c YANG DIINFEKSI METHICILLIN RESISTANT Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Mandala Of Health : A Scientific Journal, [S.l.], v. 12, n. 2, p. 159-168, dec. 2019. ISSN 2615-6954. Available at: <http://jos.unsoed.ac.id/index.php/mandala/article/view/1642>. Date accessed: 10 july 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.20884/1.mandala health.2019.12.2.1642.