Islam dan Perilaku Politik di Timur Tengah

  • Arief Bakhtiar Darmawan Universitas Jenderal Soedirman

Abstract

This paper aims to analyze religion’s roles related to the political activities in the contemporary Middle East. Constructivism is a framework that offers the way to understand the phenomenon. Constructivism provides a place for the influence of non-material factors such as the value, identity, and purpose of actor behavior in politics. This study used descriptive-interpretative method to acknowledge the problem formulation. Through the lenght of descriptive-interpretative method, author carried out data management, unification, and examination by exertly looking for patterns and relations regarding the role of Islam in political activities in Middle-East. In this article, the author examines through two levels of analysis, ie state level and regional level. At the state level, Islamic political ideology grows in a modern state and often confronts democracy. The debate over the application of Islamic law, the involvement in elections, and the adaptation of Islamic justice principles and the principle of equality are the discourses that characterize political activity in the Middle East. At the regional level, Islam exerts impact in foreign policy in the region. The regional tensions between Sunni and Shiite groups, the resistance in the context of jihad, and the emergence of ISIS are part of the conflict that contributes to regional instability. These political behaviors shows that Islam is not a religion with a single interpretation.


Keywords: Islam, Middle East, constructivism, modern states, foreign policy


Artikel ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis peran atau pengaruh Islam dalam aktivitas politik di kawasan Timur Tengah terkini. Konstruktivisme merupakan kerangka pemikiran yang menyediakan jalan untuk memahami fenomena tersebut. Konstruktivisme memberi tempat bagi pengaruh faktor-faktor non-material seperti nilai, identitas, dan maksud dari perilaku aktor dalam dunia politik. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan deskriptif-interpretatif untuk menjawab rumusan masalah. Melalui pendekatan deskriptif-interpretatif, penulis melakukan pengaturan, penyatuan, dan pemeriksaan data dengan berupaya mencari pola dan relasi mengenai peran atau pengaruh Islam dalam aktivitas politik di Timur Tengah. Dalam artikel ini, penulis meneliti melalui dua level analisis, yaitu level negara dan level regional. Dalam level negara, ideologi politik Islam tumbuh dalam negara modern dan seringkali berhadapan dengan demokrasi. Perdebatan mengenai penerapan syariat Islam, keterlibatan dalam pemilihan umum, serta penyesuaian prinsip keadilan Islam dan prinsip persamaan hak merupakan diskursus yang mewarnai aktivitas politik di Timur Tengah. Dalam level regional, Islam memberi pengaruh dalam politik luar negeri di kawasan. Ketegangan regional antara kelompok Sunni dan Syiah, perlawanan dalam konteks jihad, serta kemunculan ISIS adalah bagian dari konflik yang menyumbang ketidakstabilan kawasan. Perilaku-perilaku politik tersebut menunjukkan bahwa Islam bukan agama dengan makna yang tunggal.


Kata kunci: Islam, Timur Tengah, konstruktivisme, negara modern, politik luar negeri

References

Buku dan Jurnal

Al Anani, Khalil. (2013). The Muslim Brotherhood after Mursi. Arab Center for Research and Policy Studies: Siyasat Arabia, 17-23.

Amirahmadi, Hooshang. (2015). Dark Geopolitics of the Middle East: How the Region’s Autocrats and Foreign Intruders Created Growing Disorder. Cairo Review, 18, 86-94.

Anderson, Lisa. (1991). Absolutism and the Resilience of Monarchy in the Middle East. Political Science Quarterly, 106(1), 1-15.

Berger, Maurits. (2010). Religion and Islam in Contemporary International Relations. The Hague: Netherland Institute of International Relations.

Brown, L. Carl (Ed.). (2004). Diplomacy in the Middle East: The International Relations of Regional and Outside Powers. London & New York: I.B. Tauris & Co Ltd.

Daadler, Ivo H. & Lindsay, James M. (2003). The Bush Revolution: The Remaking of America’s Foreign Policy. Princeton: The Brookings Institute.

Esposito, John L., Rahim, Lily Z., & Ghobadzadeh, Naser (Ed.). (2018). The Politics of Islamism: Diverging Visions and Trajectories. UK: Palgrave Macmillan.

Hadiwinata, Bob Sugeng. (2017). Studi dan Teori Hubungan Internasional: Arus Utama, Alternatif, dan Reflektivis. Jakarta: Yayasan Pustaka Obor Indonesia.

Khalid, Fowziyah Abu. (2013). Is There a Saudi Spring on the Sidelines of the Arab Spring and What Place Does the “Feminist Question” Occupy within the Context? Dalam Omaima Abou-Bakr. Feminist & Islamic Perspectives: New Horizons of Knowledge And Reform (h. 27-42). Mohandeseen: The Women and Memory Forum.

Knudsen, Are. (2003). Political Islam and the Middle East. Norway: Chr. Michelsen Institute.

Luomi, Mari. (2008). Sectarian Identities or Geopolitics? The Regional Shia-Sunni Divide in the Middle East. Helsinki: The Finnish Institute of International Affairs.

Mandaville, Peter. (2016). Islam and International Relations in the Middle East: From Umma to Nation States. Dalam Louise Fawcett (Ed.), International Relations of the Middle East (4th ed., h. 176-195). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Mandaville, Peter. (2008). How do religious beliefs affect politics? Dalam Edkins, Jenny & Zehfuss, Maja, Global Politics: A New Introduction (h. 97-122). Taylor & Francis Group. London: Routledge.

Matthiesen, Toby. (2015). The domestic surces of Saudi foreign policy: Islamist and the state in the wake of Arab Uprisings. Washington, D.C.: Brooking Institute.

Muttaqien, M. (2015). The Rise of Hamas: Hamas, Arab-Israeli Conflict and Indonesia’s Foreign Policy. Cakra Studi Global Strategis: Intelegensia Media.

Neuman, W. Lawrence. (2014). Social Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches, 7th. Essex: Pearson Education Limited.

Nye, J. S. & Keohane, R. O. (1971). Transnational Relations and World Politics: An Introduction. International Organization, 25(3), 329-349.

Pew Research Center. (2015). The Future of World Religions: Population Growth Projections, 2010-2050.

Philips, Andrew Bradley. (2007). Constructivism. Dalam Martin Griffiths (Ed.), International Relations Theory for the Twenty-First Century (h. 60-74). New York: Routledge.

Sadiki, Larbi. (2018). Tunisia’s Ennahda: Islamist Turning the Learning Cuerve of Democracy and Civic Habituation. Dalam John L. Esposito, Lily Z. Rahim, & Naser Ghobadzadeh (Ed.), The Politics of Islamism: Diverging Visions and Trajectories (h. 87-125). UK: Palgrave Macmillan.

Sihbudi, M. Riza. (1991). Islam, Dunia Arab, dan Bara Timur Tengah. Bandung: Penerbit Mizan.

Spray, Sharon & Roselle, Laura. (2012). Research and Writing in International Relations, 2nd. United States: Pearson Education, Inc.

Sterling-Folker, Jennifer. (2006). Realist Approaches. Dalam Jennifer Sterling-Folker (Ed.), Making Sense of International Relations Theory (h. 13-53). Boulder, London: Lynne Rienner Publishers.

Umar, A.R.M., Darmawan, A.B., Sufa, F., & Ndadari, G.L. (2014). Media Sosial dan Revolusi Politik: Memahami Kembali Fenomena “Arab Spring” dalam Ruang Publik Transnasional. Jurnal Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Politik, 18(2), 114-129.

Internet

Aziz, Sahar. (2015, 13 November). “Egypt’s Sisi signals shift towards Muslim Brotherhood”. The Conversation. Diakses dari http://theconversation.com/egypts-sisi-signals-shift-toward-muslim-brotherhood-50279.

BBC. (2015, 2 Desember). “What is ‘Islamic State’?” Diakses dari http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-29052144.

Intelligence and Terrorism Information Center. (2012). “The Muslim Brotherhood in the Arab World and Islamic Communities in Western Europe.” Diakses dari http://www.terrorism-info.org.il/Data/pdf/PDF_11_049_2.pdf.

Mens, Sander. (2015). Egypt; between state and Islam: The rise of Islamism in Egypt during the Sadat and Mubarak regimes, 1970-2011. Diakses dari https://dspace.library.uu.nl/bitstream/handle/1874/315803/Egypt%20between%20state%20and%20Islam.pdf?sequence=2&isAllowed=y.

Press TV. (2017, 26 Juni). “Ayatollah Khamenei: Muslims obliged to fight against Israel.” Diakses dari http://www.presstv.com/Detail/2017/06/26/526548/Iran-Leader-Israel.

Reuters. (2011, 15 Maret). “Saudi sends troops, Bahrain Shi’ites call it “war”.” Diakses dari https://www.reuters.com/article/us-bahrain-protests-forces/saudi-sends-troops-bahrain-shiites-call-it-war-idUSLDE72D0KH20110315.

The Economist. (2016). “Lebanon: Political structure.” Diakses dari http://country.eiu.com/article.aspx?articleid=994109283&Country=Lebanon&topic=Summary&subtopic=Political+structure.

Wickham, Carrie R. (2013, 11 Juli). “The Muslim Brotherhood after Morsi: Can the Brothers Reboot?” Foreign Affairs. Diakses dari https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/egypt/2013-07-11/muslim-brotherhood-after-morsi.
Published
2018-05-15
How to Cite
DARMAWAN, Arief Bakhtiar. Islam dan Perilaku Politik di Timur Tengah. Insignia Journal of International Relations, [S.l.], v. 5, n. 1, p. 46-59, may 2018. ISSN 2597-9868. Available at: <http://jos.unsoed.ac.id/index.php/insignia/article/view/895>. Date accessed: 16 oct. 2018.
Section
Articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)

Obs.: This plugin requires at least one statistics/report plugin to be enabled. If your statistics plugins provide more than one metric then please also select a main metric on the admin's site settings page and/or on the journal manager's settings pages.